Specific Aim 1: To understand the determinants of outcomes in all long-term survivors of invasive rectal cancer and associated treatments, including those with (a) permanent ostomy, (b) anastomosis without temporary ostomy, and (c) anastomosis with temporary ostomy (indicating low cancers with minimal remaining rectum). Outcomes to be measured include bowel function, HR-QOL, work disability, and medical complications. Specific Aim 2: From among patients whose initial cancer surgery was anastomosis, to assess the relationships of tumor location, patient age, and co-morbidity on the rate of anastomotic failure and eventual permanent ostomy. Specific Aim 3: To better understand the scope of behavioral and dietary adjustments made by rectal cancer survivors with ostomy and anastomosis to control bowel function. Specific Aim 4: To collect qualitative data to more fully understand the lived experiences of minority rectal cancer survivors.
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