Outcomes of Prostate Cancer Androgen Deprivation Therapy

We propose to assess fatal and morbid outcomes up to 15 years following androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) for men initially diagnosed with localized prostate cancer.

In addition to lack of evidence of a mortality benefit, there is emerging evidence suggesting that ADT may be associated with increased cardiovascular mortality, as well as musculoskeletal (bone fractures), cardiovascular, and endocrine-related (diabetic) events. Our three specific aims include estimating the benefits and risks of ADT in terms of all cause and prostate-cancer specific mortality, estimating the rate of serious non-fatal adverse events; and assessing whether commonly used prescription medications can lessen the harms associated with ADT. We will assess cancer-specific outcomes according to prognostic risk groups defined by age, stage, serum biomarker values (PSA), and other pathological markers of tumor aggressiveness. For adverse event estimates, we will account for variations in baseline comorbidity and clinical predictors, and will use state-of-the-art effectiveness analysis techniques to correct for selection bias.

The retrospective observational study will be conducted using a large, diverse population of over 45,000 men diagnosed from 1995-2007 with a mean follow up of 6 years. There are comprehensive computerized clinical utilization data for this population from 3 large integrated health care plans, including longitudinal information on tumor characteristics, risk factors and outcomes. Key variables will be derived from inpatient, outpatient, pharmacy and radiology data and lab test values. In contrast to prior observational studies, ours will have the combination of size, follow up, and detailed clinical information over the entire disease trajectory needed to significantly improve the precision of risk estimates associated with ADT. These strengths, and our multi-disciplinary team experienced in prostate cancer outcomes research using large databases, will yield new and important information needed to improve treatment decision making and outcomes.

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